The Hellfire Club is a fictional society within the Marvel Comics Universe that often comes into confrontation with the mutant superhero team, the X-Men. Although the Club appears to merely be an international social club for wealthy elites, its clandestine Inner Circle seeks to influence world events to their own agenda. Created by the Uncanny X-Men writer/artist duo of Chris Claremont and John Byrne, they were heavily influenced by a 1966 episode of the British television series The Avengers ("A Touch of Brimstone"). The name "Hellfire Club" in fact has a historical precedent, having been a popular name for gentlemen's clubs in the 1700s. The Hellfire Club as such adheres to an 18th century dress code. Additionally, the hierarchy of the Inner Circle is modeled on the pieces of a chess set, with Black and White sets of Kings, Queens, Bishops and Rooks. The Hellfire Club and its Inner Circle were introduced in the Dark Phoenix Saga, attempting to subvert the X-Men's Jean Grey. This incarnation, composed most notably of Black King Sebastian Shaw and White Queen Emma Frost, would remain prominent for many years. After their initial confrontations, the Hellfire Club and the X-Men settled into an uneasy alliance. This however eventually fell by the wayside as endless power struggles perpetuated a series of upheavals within the Inner Circle.
Publication history Edit
In creating the Hellfire Club, Uncanny X-Men writer Chris Claremont and artist/co-writer John Byrne drew heavily upon a 1966 episode of the British spy series The Avengers entitled "A Touch of Brimstone". In the episode, agents John Steed and Emma Peel attempt to infiltrate a secret society named after the Hellfire Club of the 18th century, whose members of the "Inner Circle" all wear period costumes. Emma Peel's guise as "the Queen of Sin", dressed in a black leather corset, would be the model for the Club's Queens, her first name even borrowed for White Queen Emma Frost. The leader of the episode's club was played by actor Peter Wyngarde, best known for his role as Jason King, forming the basis for Mastermind's new "Jason Wyngarde" identity. The other members of Claremont and Byrne's Hellfire Club were similarly drawn from the names and faces of famous actors: Sebastian Shaw was based on actor Robert Shaw, Harry Leland on Orson Welles (who acted as Harry Lime in The Third Man and whose film Citizen Kane featured a reporter named Jed Leland), and Donald Pierce was based on Donald Sutherland (a reference to his Hawkeye Pierce character from M*A*S*H). Later writers would further the references to The Avengers: Sir Patrick and Lady Diana, from the Philadelphia branch of the 1780s, are named after actors Patrick Macnee (John Steed) and Diana Rigg (Mrs. Emma Peel); conversely, the Black Queen of the London branch was revealed to be named Ms. Steed.
Brief fictional history Edit
The Hellfire Club counts among its members the most famous, wealthy and influential members of society. Membership is passed on to descendants, and can also be earned through wealth or influence. While many accept the invitation simply for the pleasures that the Club offers, others seek wealth and influence. In fact, the purpose of the Hellfire Club is to obtain and exert power through politics and economic influence instead of outward conquest and domination. Since its foundation, the Hellfire Club has been involved in wars and assassinations to further the agendas of the Club's most powerful members. The Club has branches in New York City, Paris, Hong Kong and London; the various branches are all overseen by the Lord Imperial (a position long-held by Sir Gordon Phillips). Unbeknownst to most members however is the Club's Inner Circle. Originally known as the Council of the Chosen, this secret group formed around Edward "Ned" Buckman, each member assuming the titles of the major chess pieces. As White King, Buckman financed Stephen Lang's revived Sentinel program with the assistance of probationary member Sebastian Shaw. Shaw, now Black Bishop, began securing allies within the Club, meeting Harry Leland, Emma Frost and Donald Pierce, as well as his loyal assistant, Tessa. Buckman, no longer having a use for the dangerously-ambitious Shaw, ordered a Sentinel attack on Shaw and his allies, resulting in the death of Shaw's lover, Lourdes Chantel. That night, Shaw and Emma Frost purged the entire Council of the Chosen, remaking it as the Lords Cardinal and appointing themselves Black King and White Queen. Shaw's Inner Circle soon turned their attentions to the X-Men, kidnapping several of their number. Mastermind, as Jason Wyngarde, was made a probationary member pending his subversion of the X-Men's Jean Grey into the Hellfire Club's Black Queen, who they believed to be the descendant of Lady Grey. Jean Grey, however, was in fact the Phoenix, a god-like cosmic entity who became unstable after Mastermind's psychic manipulations, turning into the Dark Phoenix. The Hellfire Club had failed, and the X-Men had taken their toll: Phoenix had driven Mastermind insane, and Wolverine had crippled Donald Pierce and nearly killed Harry Leland and several guards. Despite such setbacks, the Inner Circle continued to pursue its agenda. Shaw, using his connections to Senator Robert Kelly to initiate Project: Wideawake, secured a government contract for Shaw Industries to manufacture Sentinels, profiting from the state of fear concerning the "mutant menace" despite secretly being a mutant himself. Frost meanwhile ran the Massachusetts Academy, a prestigious preparatory school affiliated with the Hellfire Club that secretly trained a team of young mutants, known as the Hellions. The Inner Circle also underwent some personal changes, notably the expulsion of Donald Pierce for conspiring against his mutant colleagues and the admittance of Selene as Black Queen. Although the hierarchy of the Inner Circle goes through constant upheaval due to the competing egos and political motives of its members, it continues to exist in the same basic structure today. Magneto briefly took the title of Grey King after Sebastian Shaw was voted out of the Inner Circle. It is unclear why Magneto later neglected this position. Possibly his agenda did not mesh with the precepts of the group or he may simply not have valued the organization and its influence enough to continue managing it, as he is vastly powerful and resourceful in his own right. The club since then was subject to an upstart rising instrumented by Shinobi Shaw and Selene. It appeared that Sebastian Shaw was killed. The new group, named the Upstarts, held a competition to see who could kill the most mutants. Points for each kill were awarded by the Gamesmaster and the group quickly turned against Selene as well. During this time the Inner Circle of the London branch was working behind the American branch's back and was influencing Parliament and the secret government agency Black Air. Captain Britain (Brian Braddock) held a position for a short term on Shinobi Shaw's advisement to investigate its activities as they had mutual objectives. Excalibur collected evidence of their crimes and the Inner Circle was either arrested or went into hiding. The Upstart's uprising was quashed by Sebastian Shaw. He reinstated some of the old Inner Circle until he disbanded it due to his own invested interest in business pursuits. The Club still continued loosely partly due to Selene's influence, although it never had the same prestige as the original. Sebastian Shaw again reformed a variation of the original Inner Circle with a nobler outlook posing as a force for good, which may have been a deception on his part. Tessa/Sage rejoined the Inner Circle to observe this and to assist Roberto da Costa's usurping the position of Lord Imperial which Shaw had recently claimed. The Hellfire Club is now currently under the leadership of Roberto da Costa as the Lord Imperial aided by Sage. Sat-Yr-9 (under the guise of Courtney Ross) is the new White Queen although it is unclear if she will fall in line with the Inner Circle's new position for good under da Costa's influence. She is aided by her assassin Viper, her "Warrior White Princess". As with many members in the past, both Sat-Yr-9 and Viper have their own personal agendas. Following M-Day, Sunspot remains as Lord Imperial, while Shaw has resumed his activities, though under Sunspot's close watch. While Sat-Yr-9's whereabouts remain unknown, Viper returned to Madripoor to oversee HYDRA operations  and Sage became a member of the short-lived New Excalibur, only to end up as one of the Exiles. When the X-Men and many other powered or depowered mutants came to San Francisco, an offshoot of Club, known as the Hellfire Cult, begins attacking mutants and "species traitors". Officially, their leadership appears to be Empath, but the real power behind the scenes is the mysterious Red Queen. Soon, their activities drew the attention of the X-Men.[volume & issue needed]
Lord Imperial The Lord Imperial is not a member of the Inner Circle of any particular branch of the Hellfire Club; the Lord Imperial is the true leader of the Hellfire Club and oversees all branches of it. As such, only a few individuals have held the title. Sir Gordon Phillips, while unknown at the time, ruled as Lord Imperial for most of the club's modern history, holding the position from before the club's introduction until his death from the Legacy Virus. Sir Gordon Phillips Elias Bogan Sebastian Shaw Roberto da Costa (Sunspot)
Inner Circle Edit
The constant intrigue, backstabbing, blackmailing and politicking that plague the Hellfire Club have resulted in many changes of the Inner Circle, as new players seek out membership in order to obtain influence, power and wealth. The following lists the membership of each incarnation of the Inner Circle and the title they held; in descending order of rank are Kings and Queens, followed by Bishops and Rooks.
The Council of the Chosen Edit
The original Inner Circle (existing prior to the club's introduction) consisted of: Edward "Ned" Buckman: White King Paris Seville: White Queen Sebastian Shaw: Black Bishop Sebastian Shaw was instrumental in the Hellfire Club's funding of Stephen Lang's resurrected Sentinel program, but having completed his purpose, White King Ned Buckman sought to eliminate the ambitious Black Bishop. After a Sentinel attack on Shaw's beach house resulted in the death of his lover, Lourdes Chantel, Shaw and his ally Emma Frost purged the entire Council in one night and appointed themselves its Black King and White Queen. The Lords Cardinal Shaw renamed The Council of the Chosen as The Lords Cardinal following his takeover of the New York branch, and appointed a number of allies to key positions. Frost began running the Massachusetts Academy at this time. Jason Wyngarde, also known as Mastermind, later became a probationary member pending his subversion of the X-Men's Jean Grey into the Club's Black Queen. Sebastian Shaw: Black King Emma Frost: White Queen Donald Pierce: White King Harry Leland: Black Bishop Jason Wyngarde (Mastermind): Probationary member - presumably intended for one of the two Rooks Phoenix (posing as Jean Grey): Black Queen Tessa: Shaw's personal aide Warhawk: Associate Following Mastermind's failed subversion of Jean Grey, the title of Black Queen was once again empty. Donald Pierce reached the rank of White King but was later expelled for conspiring against his mutant colleagues. New members appointed during this period were: Selene: Black Queen Friedrich Von Roehm: Black Rook Emmanuel da Costa: White Rook A truce between the Hellfire Club and the X-Men began after an encounter with Nimrod resulted in the deaths of Leland and von Roehm. This truce soon grew into a formal alliance as Storm and Magneto, as the leaders of the X-Men and Xavier's school respectively, took over the shared position of White King. Storm: White King (with Magneto) Magneto: White King, later Grey King Storm and the X-Men would later seemingly die, leaving Magneto alone to deal with the Inner Circle. After a protracted power struggle, Magneto turned Emma Frost and Selene against Shaw and expelled him from Inner Circle, assuming both mantles as the new Grey King. Magneto, while never formally resigning, would soon withdraw from the club, recognizing its role as another oppressor of mutantkind. Frost would later be made comatose - marking her departure from the club - in a Sentinel attack that also killed the Hellions, mutant students of the club's Massachusetts Academy. White Rook Emmanuel da Costa was also killed around this period.
Shinobi Shaw's Upstart Inner Circle Edit
Selene had originally planned on creating a new Inner Circle with the help of the Upstarts - among them Shinobi Shaw, son of Sebastian Shaw - but they betrayed and imprisoned her. Believing to have successfully assassinated his father, Shinobi Shaw briefly took over the New York branch of the Club, seemingly with support from the External Candra. He offered membership in his Inner Circle to Archangel, Storm, and Sunspot (also known as Roberto da Costa, son of former White Rook Emmanuel da Costa), but all declined. Shinobi Shaw: Black King Benedict Kine: White King Benazir Kaur: Suspected to be the Black Queen Reeva Payge: Suspected to be the White Queen Candra: Associate Cordelia Frost: Probationary member Ebon Knights: Shinobi Shaw's Black Guard Ivory Knights: Benedict Kine's White Guard The titles of Payge and Kaur are not established. When Cordelia Frost (younger sister of Emma) applies for membership to the Inner Circle, Shinobi states that the title of White Queen is already taken. Shinobi Shaw's actions as Black King were limited to failed attempts at extending his influence - Archangel, Storm, and Sunspot (also known as Roberto da Costa, the son of former White Rook Emmanuel da Costa) all refused his invitations to his Inner Circle - and monitoring the London branch of the Club.
The London Branch Edit
The Hellfire Club's London branch is introduced briefly operating parallel to Shinobi's Inner Circle. Instead of Black and White, the titles of the London Inner Circle are designated Black and Red. Emma Steed: Black Queen Margali Szardos: Red Queen Quentin Templeton: Black King Alan Wilson: Red King Brian Braddock (Captain Britain): Black Bishop Conrad Strathdee:Red Bishop Jane Hampshire (possessed by Mountjoy): Red Rook Rutledge: Servant Captain Britain, having inherited club membership from his father, Sir James Braddock, was asked by Shinobi Shaw to infiltrate the London Inner Circle, as the branch's mysterious agenda surely ran counter to both their interests. The London Branch and their plans were soon brought to an end after a failed attempt to use a demon's essence to control the city. The Black Queen and Red King were taken into police custody.
Shaw's Second Circle Edit
Sebastian Shaw, despite his apparent death, later re-emerged and retook control of the Hellfire Club in attempt to restore its former power and glory. Selene, freed from her imprisonment by the Upstarts, took under her influence a resurrected Madelyne Pryor in her quest for revenge. Shaw meanwhile attempted to ally with the AOA-exile Holocaust. Meeting in New York, Shaw proposes a reformation of the Inner Circle with the following line-up: At first operating in secret from outside the Hellfire Club (still under Shinobi Shaw's control), Sebastian's group soon reasserted control over the organization. Sebastian Shaw: Black King Selene: Black Queen Trevor Fitzroy: White Rook Madelyne Pryor: Black Rook Donald Pierce: Applicant for White Bishop Tessa: Shaw's personal aide Ella: Selene's personal servant Holocaust: Associate Miss Hoo: Associate Selene's mind control over Madelyne Pryor eventually waned, and the Black Rook's allegiance soon turned to Sebastian Shaw. Concerned, Selene contacted Fitzroy and Tessa to counteract the changing balance of power. Donald Pierce returned to the Hellfire Club as a probationary member, however his failure in attaining the alien technology of Apocalypse resulted in his expulsion from the group. Pryor meanwhile had betrayed and deserted the club. Shaw, presented with a mysterious offer, decided to accept its terms and resign from the Inner Circle, advising Fitzroy to do the same.
Selene's Hellfire Club Edit
Selene, finding herself the sole remaining member of the Inner Circle, reformed the club in her own image and allied with the ruler of Hell, Blackheart. After a confrontation with the Fantastic Four, Blackheart is imprisoned and Selene's captive Daimon Hellstorm is freed; Hellstorm then became the club's White King to ensure a balance of power and light. Selene would later successfully induct Sunspot (Roberto da Costa, son of former Black Rook Emmanuel da Costa) into the Inner Circle, offering the resurrection of his long-dead girlfriend, Julianna, who died saving his life. Selene: Black Queen Blackheart: Black King Daimon Hellstrom: White King Roberto da Costa (Sunspot): Black Rook It is unknown what led to the dissolution of this incarnation. The Hellfire Club was found closed and abandoned, covered in blackbriar thorns; Selene herself was trapped inside the mansion, unable to leave.
The Fifth Inner Circle Edit
After the death of Sir Gordon Phillips due to the Legacy Virus, Sebastian Shaw positioned himself as the new Lord Imperial and, as such, oversaw the entire Hellfire Club. Sebastian Shaw: Lord Imperial Roberto da Costa (Sunspot): Black King Selene: Black Queen Sat-Yr-9 (as Courtney Ross): White Queen Viper: White Warrior Princess Tessa: Shaw's personal aide; Sunspot's personal advisor Red Lotus: Associate Selene, despite remaining imprisoned underneath the Hellfire Club's New York mansion and not actively participating in the Inner Circle, has apparently retained her title of Black Queen. It was also revealed that Emma Frost, despite having left the club long ago and having since joined the X-Men, still retained her membership and White Queen title. Sat-Yr-9 confronts Emma Frost and, assuming her title, becomes the newest addition to the Inner Circle, bringing with her bodyguard and self-appointed "White Warrior Princess" Viper. A confrontation with Donald Pierce leaves Sebastian Shaw gravely injured, and Sunspot takes over as Lord Imperial, which was Tessa's plan all along. Tessa left the Club, still under Sunspot's rule, and joined New Excalibur in the wake of M-Day. Shaw has since returned as the Black King, seemingly plotting to rebuild his power base.
Nova's Inner Circle Edit
The illusory Inner Circle, sans Emma Frost: Perfection, Cassandra Nova, Negasonic Teenage Warhead and Sebastian Shaw Emma Frost Sebastian Shaw Perfection Cassandra Nova Negasonic Teenage Warhead A mysterious new Inner Circle emerged, plotting the betrayal of the X-Men by Emma Frost, culminating in an assault on the X-Mansion. It was later revealed that these were in fact the psychic manipulations of Cassandra Nova, who, in an attempt to free herself from mental imprisonment by the X-Men, had placed a portion of her mind in Frost's. This Inner Circle was in fact Emma Frost's psionic projections - Negasonic Teenage Warhead being a former student of hers who died in Genosha, and Perfection a manifestation of Emma's younger, evil self - and not aligned with the Hellfire Club.
The Sixth Inner Circle Edit
Sebastian Shaw's Inner Circle has recently reemerged. Wolverine came into confrontation with a new "Inner Circle", under the false impression (by Sebastian Shaw and "Miss Sinister") that they are behind the kidnapping of his son, Daken. Sebastian Shaw Claudine Renko (Miss Sinister) Mr. Castlemere Turner Scholl Mercedes
The Seventh Inner Circle Edit
Selene has reemerged and with her a new Inner Cicle composed of the deadliest mutants in the world. Wither Blink Senyaka Mortis Eli Bard
The following characters are members of the Hellfire Club, many of them being extremely influential, but were not part of the any of the Inner Circle incarnations mentioned above. Membership is either hereditary, or obtained through personal invitation from the branch's King. Known members include: Warren Worthington Jr. and Kathryn Worthington (both deceased) - invited by Ned Buckman Howard Stark - invited by Ned Buckman Sir James Braddock - invited by Ned Buckman, former Black Bishop of the London Branch, left the Inner Circle when his inventions where used for anti-mutant purposes. Senator Robert Kelly Warren Worthington III (Angel) - inherited membership from his father Candace "Candy" Southern (deceased) Elizabeth Braddock (Psylocke) - inherited membership. James Braddock Jr. - inherited membership. Berhard Van Ostamgen - failed entry into Inner Circle Ronald Parvenue Dwayne Taylor (Night Thrasher) Anthony Stark (Iron Man) - inherited membership from his father Norman Osborn (Green Goblin) Bianca LeNeige Vance Astrovik Oliver Ryland, Elias Bogan's protégé The Kingmaker Rachel Summers, White Warrior Princess, invited by Emma Frost Lady Jacqueline Falsworth-Crichton - inherited membership
Past members Edit
Philadelphia, 1780/81: Sir Patrick Clemens (King title), Lady Diana Knight (Queen title), Lady Grey (Queen title), Elizabeth Shaw-Worthington, Major General Wallace Worthington, Commander Clinton London, 1859: Lord Braddock, Mr. Shaw (Sebastian Shaw's great-grandfather and Cornelius Shaw's father) Boston, 1872/74: Anton Pierce (Member of the Inner Circle) London, 1915: Brigadier-General Cornelius Shaw, Sir Harry Manners, Waltham Pierce In Runaways #10, Emma Frost tells Cyclops that the Hellfire Club had once reached out for the Hayeses, though the attempt went awry because the Hayeses were "sadistic monsters".
The Hellfire Club has employed a large number of mostly-anonymous armed guards, however a few have been named: Wade Cole Angelo Macon Murray Reese Samuel Guthrie (Cannonball) Richard Salmons Randall Chase Chet Andrews Cole, Macon and Reese were savagely wounded by Wolverine in the Hellfire Club's first confrontation with the X-Men. They would return to duty as cyborgs before leaving the Club to join Lady Deathstrike in seeking revenge against Wolverine, eventually joining the Reavers. Sam Guthrie worked as a Hellfire guard for a brief period before joining the New Mutants as Cannonball. The Hellfire Club also employs a number of servants, escorts and strippers. Sharon Kelly was a waitress at the New York branch who was chosen by Sebastian Shaw to seduce Senator Robert Kelly. The couple quickly married, but soon afterwards Sharon was killed in a battle involving the X-Men, further fueling her husband’s hatred for mutants.
Massachusetts Academy Edit
Main article: Massachusetts Academy (comics) Further information: Hellions (comics) The Hellfire Club was aligned with the prestigious prep school the Massachusetts Academy, run by White Queen Emma Frost, for a number of years. In addition to its large, traditional, student body, the Academy secretly trained a team of young mutants known as the Hellions. Due to their affiliation with the Club, the Hellions were often present at its social functions. This group would entertain a rivalry with Professor Charles Xavier's students at the time, the New Mutants. After the death of the Hellions in an attack orchestrated by the Upstarts, Emma Frost left the Hellfire Club. Re-aligning herself with Professor Xavier, the Massachusetts Academy became the new site for Xavier's School for Gifted Youngsters and a new class, known as Generation X.
Other versions Edit
Age of Apocalypse In the alternate universe known as the "Age of Apocalypse", the Hellfire Club was not active and was possibly decimated by the forces of Apocalypse. Its closest counterpart was Heaven, Warren Worthington III's nightclub that formed a neutral zone from the genetic conflict that boiled outside. Sebastian Shaw meanwhile served as a member of Apocalypse's court. Donald Pierce also became a servant of Apocalypse, and lead the techno-organic-infected Reavers. On the other side of the conflict, Emma Frost served as part of the Human High Council, having been stripped of her powers through a lobotomy. Jason Wyngarde, a victim of the Sugar Man's genetic experiments, and had become one of Forge's Outcasts. Days of Future Past In the Days of Future Past timeline, Shinobi Shaw and Betsy Braddock took over the Hellfire Club London Branch and became the Black King and Red Queen. Bishop's Future The Hellfire Club retained its position as one of the world's major powers in the future timeline of Bishop. The Club is ruled by Anthony Shaw, a descendant of Sebastian Shaw; he also has an illegitimate son, Trevor Fitzroy. (Fitzroy would later travel back in time, bringing him into conflict with his forefathers Shinobi and Sebastian Shaw.) Malcolm, a colleague of Bishop and member of the Xavier Security Enforcers (X.S.E.), was also a member of the Club. Clan Hellfire In a future dominated by Trevor Fitzroy, calling himself The Chronomancer, one of the forces opposing his rule is Clan Hellfire, led by a Samara Shaw. X-Men: Ronin In one alternate reality in which the X-Men are based in Japan, the Hellfire Club is ruled by Professor Xavier. The White Queen Emma Frost is a junior member who, along with Tessa, believe Xavier to be their biological father. The Club controls the Shadowcat Clan of ninjas, which includes Pyro, Iceman and Colossus. Marvel Noir In X-Men Noir, the Hellfire Club is an exclusive S&M club owned by Sebastian Shaw, and is plundered early on by Beast, Cyclops and Iceman. Ultimate Hellfire Club Within the Hellfire Club of the Ultimate Marvel Universe is an Inner Circle led by Sebastian Shaw who worship a pagan "Phoenix God". Believing the Phoenix to be incarnated in the body of X-Man Jean Grey, the Club quietly funded Professor Charles Xavier as she developed under his tutelage. Jean however underwent a mental breakdown, and stole the Inner Circle's bank access codes and wiped their minds. A group called the Church of Shi'ar Enlightenment later approached the Xavier Institute, claiming the Hellfire Club was a breakaway sect, and asking to examine whether or not Jean really is the Phoenix God. However, Lilandra's assistant Gerald Lavine was revealed to be an operative of the Hellfire Club and working for Shinobi Shaw, who is also dating Emma Frost, headmistress of the Academy of Tomorrow and secretly a member of the Hellfire club.
In other media Edit
Television The Hellfire Club and its original Inner Circle appeared in X-Men: The Animated Series; it was however renamed the "Inner Circle Club" to prevent any controversy regarding the use of the word "Hellfire". The members of the Inner Circle - Sebastian Shaw, Jason Wyngarde, Emma Frost, Donald Pierce and Harry Leland - aimed to control Jean Grey and brainwash her into joining them, but unwittingly unleashed the Dark Phoenix. The animated series Wolverine and the X-Men featured a Hellfire Club (also called the Inner Circle as in the previous series) composed of Emma Frost, Sebastian Shaw, Harry Leland, Donald Pierce, Selene, and the Stepford Cuckoos. This inner circle appears more closely related to the Ultimate Series, as a group who is obsessed solely with attaining the power of the Phoenix.  Video games The Hellfire Club have appeared in numerous X-Men video games as villains in various stages specifically within the Hellfire Mansion with the final boss almost always being Sebastian Shaw. The Hellfire Club Mansion appeared as the first stage in X-Men (Game Gear System) as well as X-Men 2 - Game Masters Legacy (Game Gear).
^ a b c X-Men Companion II. 1982. Fantagraphics Books. ^ Uncanny X-Men #129-135 ^ a b Uncanny X-Men #209 ^ a b New Mutants (vol. 1) #51 ^ Excalibur (vol. 1) #99 ^ a b c X-Treme X-Men #3 ^ Uncanny X-Men #100 ^ a b c X-Men: The Hellfire Club #4 ^ a b Classic X-Men #6-7 ^ a b Uncanny X-Men #132-135 ^ a b c d e Marvel Graphic Novel #4 ^ New Avengers #42 ^ Uncanny X-Men #388 ^ a b New Mutants (vol. 1) #23 ^ New Mutants (vol. 1) #22 ^ New Mutants (vol. 1) #75 ^ Uncanny X-Men #275 ^ a b Uncanny X-Men #281-282 ^ New Mutants (vol. 1) #98 ^ X-Factor (vol. 1) #67 ^ a b c d e f X-Men (vol. 2) #29 ^ a b X-Men (vol. 2) Annual #3 ^ a b X-Force (vol. 1) #62 ^ Generation X Annual '95 ^ a b Excalibur (vol. 1) #96 ^ a b c d e Marvel Atlas #1 ^ Excalibur (vol. 1) #99-100 ^ X-Force (vol. 1) #48 ^ X-Man #7 ^ X-Man #13 ^ X-Man #16-17 ^ X-Man #20-22 ^ a b X-Man #28 ^ X-Man #24-25 ^ Cable #47 ^ Cable #50-53 ^ X-Men (vol. 2) #72 ^ a b c X-Men (vol. 2) #73 ^ Fantastic Four Annual '99 ^ X-Force (vol. 1) #98-100 ^ Marvel Graphic Novel #4 ("The New Mutants") ^ Uncanny X-Men #452 ^ Astonishing X-Men (vol. 3) #12 ^ Astonishing X-Men (vol. 3) #13-18 ^ X-Men: Legacy #215 ^ a b c Uncanny X-Men #132 ^ New Mutants (1st series) #53 ^ Runaways #10 ^ a b c d Uncanny X-Men #133 ^ Uncanny X-Men #210 ^ Firestar #1-4 ^ X-Men Unlimited (vol. 1) #33 ^ Uncanny X-Men #152 ^ Uncanny X-Men #205 ^ a b Uncanny X-Men #247 ^ Uncanny X-Men #246 ^ Uncanny X-Men #129 ^ New Mutants (vol. 1) #16 ^ Uncanny X-Men #318 ^ Generation X #1 ^ X-Men: Noir #2 ^ Wolverine and the X-Men Episodes 23-26